‘The Defense of Palamedes’ — A Rhetorical Analysis

Plato defined rhetoric, along with its chief proponent, Gorgias, as a shadow discipline, or ‘experiential knack’ (Gorgias, 463c), that is a phantom counterpart to philosophy. In this paper, though, I will look at Gorgias and sophistical argumentation without Plato’s prejudicial lens. This is not a paper about what constitutes sophistry or rhetoric in contrast to…

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Jenefer Robinson On Listening With Emotion

Jenefer Robinson holds that feeling an emotion is a process which begins with “an affective, non-cognitive evaluation that causes autonomic and motor changes and is succeeded by cognitive monitoring” (Deeper than Reason, 58-59). Moreover, in chapter 12 of Deeper Than Reason, Robinson discusses this position in light of the results of Krumhansl's experiment. In doing so,…

Syntax And Semantics In Searle’s Chinese Room Argument

'The Chinese room argument', as put forth by John Searle, is an argument against Weak AI. I have explained John Searle's Chinese room argument here so I will not take the time to do so again. Rather, I will take the time to explain the difference between Weak AI and Strong AI. Weak AI is the notion that…

A Review Of Catherine Z. Elgin’s ‘Fiction As Thought Experiment’

Dictionary.com defines scientific experiments as “tests under controlled conditions that are made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something". In "Thought Experiments", by Roy Sorenson, Sorenson points out that “the aim of any experiment is to answer or raise its question rationally (Sorenson, 205). As…

Avicenna On Self-Awareness (Floating Man Argument)

Avicenna believes intellectual progress is made through finding the linking, or middle terms, of syllogistic arguments. A thought experiment is not in itself a syllogism, but it can prompt one to reflect more effectively and help trigger and intuitive insight of that elusive middle term. More modestly, a thought might just guide one towards the…

Avicenna On Mental Existence – “Metaphysics” I.5.12

In Cure “Metaphysics” I.5.12 Avicenna writes: Concerning what is said—namely, ‘A thing is that about which information is given’—this is true. But when, in addition to this, it is said ‘A thing may be absolutely nonexistent’, this is a matter that must be looked into. If by ‘nonexistent’ is meant the nonexistent in external reality,…

A Review of Lawrence Shapiro’s Multiple Realizability Thesis

The multiple realizability thesis (MRT) is the idea that the function of certain kinds of objects can manifest itself in a number of different ways. In Multiple Realizations, Shapiro points out that in order to properly understand the MRT, one must first distinguish between the two different kinds of objects: natural kinds and non-natural kinds.…