Al-Fārābi

According to Al-Fārābi, “Religion is opinions and actions, determined and restricted with stipulations and prescribed for a community by their first ruler, who seeks to obtain through their practicing it a specific purpose with respect to them or by means of them" (Book of Religion, 1). Religion is an applied ideology that gives its interpretation,…

A Review Of Being and Time

Being and Time, by Martin Heidegger, represents an attempt at “fundamental ontology” (34), which is the study of Being. Moreover, Being and Time is an inquiry into the fundamental question of Being via employment of a method known as phenomenology, which involves the reflection upon and interpretation of every day experiences to reveal its underlying…

A Review of Jerry Fodor’s “Special Sciences” (Or: The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis)

In Special Sciences, Jerry Fodor talks about the unity of science via reductionism. Reductionism is the idea that mental phenomena can be reduced to/explained by physical phenomena. For example, being scared can be explained as the physical process of one's heart rate increasing, or as a heightening of one's awareness to his or her surroundings,…

An Argument For Theaetetus’ Claim: Knowledge Is Perception

Socrates’ claim that “things such as size or warmth or whiteness belong neither to the object we measure ourselves against of touch or to we who are doing the measuring or touching” (154b) is a result of taking Heraclitean and Protagorean ideas to their logical extremes. Moreover, in this conclusion, Socrates combined the Heraclitean theory of flux with Theaetetus’ claim that…